Castle of the Moors
he castle's first forts date back to the 1st century BC, having been rebuilt several times by various civilization and given different names. The current name comes from the castle's devotion to Saint Jorge, patron saint of the knights and crusades, made by order of D. João, the 1st, in the 14th century.
he Lisbon Cathedral, or Santa Maria Maior Church, is located in the city of the same name, in Portugal. It is the seat of the Patriarchate of Lisbon and the Parish of the Cathedral. Its construction began in the second half of the 12th century, after D. Afonso Henriques conquered the city from the
Moors, and today it presents itself as a mixture of architectural styles.
São Vicente of Fora Church
t dates back to a church, started in 1582, in a place where D. Afonso Henriques ordered a construction of a primitive temple, built also under the invocation of Saint Vicente. This saint was proclaimed patron of Lisbon in 1173, when his relics were transferred from Algarve to a Church outside the city walls.
The construction only started in 1590 by the hand of the architect and engineer Filippo Terzi (1520 - 1597) according to a drawing by the Spanish architect Juan de Herrera (1530 - 1597). Another prominent figure in the work of São Vicente de Fora is, without a doubt, the Portuguese architect Baltasar Álvares.
He took with him a learned apprenticeship in Roman Mannerism acquired through his Portuguese architect and engineer Afonso Álvares. Thus, a new architectural style was born in Portugal, which would serve as a model to the following religious constructions. The work was completed in 1627. The church of São Vicente de Fora, located in Alfama, an area that identifies the context of the medieval surroundings of the city of Lisbon in the 16th century.
National Pantheon (Church of Santa Engrácia)
he Church of Santa Engrácia was found in 1568, by order of Infant D. Maria, daughter of King D. Manuel, the 1st.
It was one of the first Baroque works in the country, with a privileged location and open views over the Tagus River.
Of great proportions and with a centralized model defining a Greek cross plan (square plan), it evokes the Italian temple of Saint Pietro in Montorio and Saint Satiro in Milan, by Donato Bramante.
Due to various events, including the death of the architect and the 1755 earthquake, constructions only ended in the middle of 20 the century, already named as National Pantheon, a function that was attributed to him in 1916.
Inside, in addition to the grave of fado singer Amália Rodrigues, there are the remains of the writers João de Deus, Almeida Garrett and Guerra Junqueiro and the Republic Presidents Manuel de Arriaga, Teófilo Braga, Sidónio Pais and Óscar Carmona. They are also evoked by cenotaphs by Luís de Camões, Pedro Álvares Cabral, Afonso de Albuquerque, Nuno Álvares Pereira, Vasco da Gama and Infant D. Henrique.
he Jerónimos Monastery (or Royal Monastery of Santa Maria de Belém) was founded by King D. Manuel, the 1st in the early 16th century. The constructions began just at the turn of the century, laying the first stone on the symbolic date of January 6 (Kings day) 1502.
Donated to the monks Jerónimos, who remained here until the second quarter of the 19th century, the Monastery dos Jerónimos is a true “canticle” in the Manueline style due to the profusion of religious, nautical and royal elements immortalized in stone.
The monastic ensemble still preserves, in addition to the Manueline church, a large part of the magnificent convent facilities that contributed to its international fame, including the 16th century cloister, the former monks' refectory and the Old Bookstore room.
n the right bank of the Tejo River, where the beach of Belém once existed, it was originally surrounded by waters throughout its perimeter. Over the centuries, it was surrounded by the beach, until the mainland was incorporated today.
One of the city's highlights, the monument is an icon of the architecture of the reign of King Manuel, the 1st, in a synthesis between keeping the medieval tradition and the modern bulwark, where artillery pieces were available. Over time, the tower lost its function of defending the Tejo bar and, from the Filipino occupation, the old storehouses gave way to dungeons.
On the four floors of the tower, the Governor's Room, the Kings' Room, the Audience Room and, finally, the Chapel with its characteristic 16th century vaults are maintained. The Saint Vicente Tower (1514) belongs to a defense formation in the Tejo basin that was erected by João the 2nd of Portugal.
Monument to the Discoveries
he Monument of Discoveries (or Monument to the Discoveries; or Monument to the Navigators) is located in the parish of Belém, in the city and district of Lisbon, in Portugal. The architectural design is by Cottinelli Telmo and the sculptures are by Leopoldo de Almeida.
In an outstanding position on the right bank of the Tejo River, the original monument, in perishable materials, was erected in 1940 on the occasion of the Portuguese World Exhibition to honor the historical figures involved in the Portuguese Discoveries.
The current replica, in concrete and stone, is later, having been inaugurated in 1960.
he National Sanctuary of Cristo Rei is located at an altitude of 133 meters above the level of Tejo River, being constituted by a 75 meter high portico designed by the architect António Lino, surmounted by the statue of the Most Holy Redeemer with open arms facing the city of Lisbon, 28 meters high, by the Portuguese sculptor Francisco Franco de Sousa.
The pedestal, including the portico, rises to 82 meters in height. This monument is the best viewpoint overlooking the city of Lisbon, offering a wide view of the capital and the 25 de Abril Bridge.
It is one of the tallest buildings in Portugal, 110 meters high. The first stone of the monument's construction was laid on December 18, 1949. It was inaugurated on May 17, 1959.